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آثار محدودیت اینترنت بر جوامع

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آسیه فروردین – در سال 2011، سازمان ملل، دسترسی به اینترنت را به عنوان حق اولیه بشری اعلام و استدلال کرد که محرومیت افراد از اتصال به اینترنت، حقوق بشر و قوانین بین‌المللی را نقض می‌کند. این گزارش در همان روزی منتشر شد که دسترسی دوسوم مردم سوریه به اینترنت، به طور ناگهانی و بدون اطلاع قبلی قطع شد.

فرانک لارو، گزارشگر ویژه سازمان ملل در حوزه ترویج و حمایت از حق آزادی عقیده و بیان، طی گزارشی بر ماهیت منحصربه‌فرد و دگرگون‌کننده اینترنت تاکید کرد.

به گفته وی، اینترنت نه تنها افراد را قادر می‌سازد تا از حق خود برای آزادی عقیده استفاده کنند، بلکه طیفی از حقوق بشر برای ارتقای پیشرفت جامعه به عنوان یک کل را به همراه دارد.

  • فناوری‌ها در برابر حکومت‌ها

والنتینا ورا در مقاله‌ای در سایت گلوبال ویس نوشت: تعداد فزاینده تظاهرات در سراسر جهان، رابطه ذاتی بین اینترنت و بسیج جامعه مدنی را درباره مسائل مربوط به عدالت، برابری، مسوولیت‌پذیری و حقوق بشر آشکار کرده است. همان‌طور که وب، محلی برای شهادت درباره نقض حقوق بشر می‌شود، پیوند حقوق بشر و اینترنت، علاقه محافل علمی را به نحوه اجرای مسایل سنتی حقوق بشر در قلمرو دیجیتال افزایش داده است. بسیاری از افراد استدلال می‌کنند که فناوری‌های جدید با کاهش هزینه‌ها، بسیج جامعه مدنی را توانمند می‌سازد و جنبش‌های اعتراضی و سایر اشکال مخالفت را تسهیل می‌کند.

گروه‌های مخالف از رسانه‌های اجتماعی برای هماهنگی فعالیت‌های خود استفاده می‌کنند. به عنوان مثال، در جریان موسوم به بهار عربی، معترضان، برای انتشار اطلاعات درباره فعالیت‌های‌شان، از کانال‌های رسانه‌های اجتماعی مختلف و برای افزایش آگاهی محلی و جهانی از رویدادهای جاری و انتشار پیام استفاده کردند. بر این اساس، رسانه‌های دیجیتال، ابزار اصلی جنبش اعتراضی اعلام شد، در حالی که روزنامه‌نگاران و محققان اعلام کردند که قرن 21، قرن «انقلاب توییت» است.

اعتراضات در هر جامعه دموکراتیک برای تسهیل تغییرات اجتماعی و اقدام موثر دولت، ضروری است. علاوه بر این، اعتراضات تضمین می‌کنند که افراد می‌توانند نظرات و مخالفت خود را با ایرادات حاکمیت بیان کنند.

با تثبیت آنها، بسیاری از جنبش‌ها برای دستیابی به حامیان جدید، به شدت به اینترنت متکی هستند. با این حال، تظاهرات عمومی از نظر تاریخی به عنوان تهدید علیه دولت‌ها تلقی شده است. در نتیجه، برخی کشورها، برای قطع اینترنت و مهار صداهای مخالف، از عباراتی مانند حفظ امنیت ملی و حفظ امنیت عمومی نام می‌برند.

در ادامه این مقاله آمده است: دولت ایران نیز اخیرا دسترسی به اینترنت را محدود و دسترسی میلیون‌ها ایرانی به اینترنت و رسانه‌های اجتماعی را با مشکل مواجه کرده همین امر نیز هماهنگی فعالیت‌ها و انتقال اطلاعات به دنیای خارج را برای فعالان اینترنتی دشوارتر کرده است.

  • فناوری‌ها در کنار حکومت‌ها

بنابراین اثرات مفید این فناوری‌ها برای گروه‌های اپوزیسیون انکارناپذیر است اما همزمان فناوری‌های دیجیتال به سلاحی برای جلوگیری از اعتراضات و ساکت کردن مخالفان تبدیل شده‌اند. این اقدام، اولین خط دفاعی برای حاکمیت‌هاست تا از سازماندهی و بسیج گروه‌های مخالف احتمالی جلوگیری کند.

علاوه بر این، فناوری‌های نوظهور، نحوه تعامل فعالان با کشورهای محدودکننده اینترنت را شکل می‌دهند. در حالی که مخالفان از چشم‌انداز دیجیتال برای حمایت و هماهنگی فعالیت‌های مقاومت استفاده می‌کنند، دولت‌ها، فناوری‌های جدیدی برای اشباع انجمن‌های آنلاین با اطلاعات نادرست و شناسایی تحریک‌کنندگان با الگوریتم‌های پیچیده هوش مصنوعی به کار می‌گیرند.

مقامات سیاسی برخی کشورها یاد گرفته‌اند روش‌های خاصی را برای جلوگیری از بسیج سیاسی اجرا کنند. اینترنت استفاده از ابزارهای بسیاری را برای کمک به دولت‌های محدودکننده آن، به منظور توانمندسازی خودشان تسهیل می‌کند.

به عنوان مثال، دولت‌ها ممکن است از ارایه‌دهندگان خدمات اینترنت بخواهند عمدا ترافیک شبکه را کاهش دهند یا به اتصالات اینترنت تلفن همراه به بهانه محافظت از مردم در برابر سخنان نفرت‌انگیز یا اطلاعات نادرست ضربه بزنند. گاه نیز از تشخیص صدا برای اسکن شبکه‌های تلفن همراه، ردیابی شهروندان از طریق GPS، نظارت بر ایمیل‌ها، پیام‌های متنی برای ردیابی گروه‌های مخالف و بدافزار برای جاسوسی مخفیانه از لپ‌تاپ و تلفن‌های همراه استفاده می‌شود.

وقتی اینترنت قطع می‌شود، به طور مستقیم امکان هماهنگی مخالفان نیز مختل می‌شود.

در عین حال، نظارت دیجیتال اطلاعات بسیار مشخصی را درباره نیات و مکان مخالفان ارایه و این امکان را فراهم می‌کند تا اقدامات بازدارنده، هدفمندتر و متناسب با افراد باشد. علاوه بر این، نظارت بر بازیگران اصلی مخالف می‌تواند به این دولت‌ها کمک کند تا شبکه‌های گروه‌های مخالف و ابزارهای عمل آنها را شناسایی کنند.

در نتیجه، فناوری‌ها بر جنبش‌های اعتراضی تاثیر منفی نیز می‌گذارند و از آزادی اقدام و بیان می‌کاهند.

در نتیجه، معترضان ممکن است نسبت به درگیر شدن درباره موضوعات مورد علاقه عمومی تردید کنند، زیرا ممکن است از تهدید و انتقام از سوی مقامات بیم داشته باشند.

بنابراین، استفاده از این فناوری‌ها، مردم را به عدم استفاده از حق اعتراض، ابراز عقاید و عقاید مخالف سوق می‌دهد و مانع کنترل سوءاستفاده‌های آینده از قدرت می‌شود. علاوه بر این، گروه‌های به‌حاشیه رانده‌شده در برخی کشورها کمتر به اینترنت دسترسی دارند. با این حال، وقتی دسترسی پیدا می‌کنند، احتمال بیشتری دارد که تحت‌نظر و سانسور قرار گیرند. مهم‌تر اینکه قطع اینترنت یک اقدام راهبردی برای جلوگیری از بسیج همگانی و مشارکت گروه‌های حاشیه‌نشین در مباحث مربوطه است.

در همین حال، شهروندانی که در شرایط رفاهی مناسب‌تر با دسترسی بدون سانسور به اینترنت زندگی می‌کنند، احتمالا سطوح پایین‌تری از نارضایتی سیاسی یا علاقه به بسیج همگانی دارند.

  • تاثیر محدودیت اینترنت

در مجموع، قطع کردن اینترنت، پدیده جدید شگفت‌انگیز از سوی دولت‌های محدودکننده آزادی بیان نیست و گرایش قابل توجهی برای محدودیت دسترسی به اینترنت در سطوح مختلف وجود دارد.

دولت‌ها، برای محدودیت دسترسی به اطلاعات آنلاین، اقدامات قانونی محدودکننده اعمال می‌کنند. این قوانین، شرکت‌های اینترنتی خصوصی را ملزم به حذف محتوای آنلاین و حذف اطلاعات مهم می‌کند. این اقدامات، موجب ایجاد فضای خودسانسوری می‌شود، زیرا مردم از پیگرد قانونی می‌ترسند. بر این اساس، ممانعت از دسترسی به اینترنت و بسیج سیاسی، به ابزاری برای مقابله با جمعیت معترضان، محدودیت شفافیت و پاسخگویی، به‌ویژه در زمینه گردهمایی‌های سیاسی، انتخابات و مجامع عمومی تبدیل شده است.

متاسفانه قطعی اینترنت توسط دولت‌ها به یک امر عادی تبدیل شده است. در حالی که معترضان راه‌های جدیدی برای مقاومت در برابر این دولت‌ها پیدا می‌کنند، افزایش استفاده از خاموشی‌های اینترنتی در آینده، اعتراض‌ها و جوامعی را که با سانسور مواجهند، تهدید می‌کند.

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